i need as much as possible on a study guide for biology

1)Carbon makes up a large portion of human composition, and of

living organisms on earth. Given that carbon makes up so little of

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the elements in earths crust or atmosphere, how do “we” not run

out of carbon for living organisms?

2) Hydrocarbons are not utilized by living organisms without

modifications. What are the modifying molecules called? What

properties do these molecules give to hydrocarbons so they can

be utilized?

3) List a real-life example of a monomer and a polymer


4) List 2 major functions polysaccharides provide organisms.

5) Chemically, how are carbohydrates and lipids different from each

other (at least 2 different things)?

6) How does saturation of a fatty acid affect its physical structure

(think about temperature)?

7) Phospholipids make up what essential cellular structure? What

unique physical property do they have?

8) List 3 steroids. What class of biomolecule do steroids belong to?

In what way is cholesterol good for organisms?

9) Illustrate and name the 3 major functional units of an Amino Acid

molecule. Which functional unit determines the type of amino


10) What the 3 major functional units make up a DNA molecule?

Draw a DNA molecule and label the units.

11) List the nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA

12) What kind of bond forms the “heart” of the DNA double helix?

13) Where can each class of biomolecule be found in a cell?

14) Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. List at

least 2 similarities and 2 differences.

15) Does a single celled organism have to be a prokaryote? Explain

your answer with an example.

16) What goes on inside the nucleus? What is contained inside, and

what is it’s purpose?

17) What are ribosomes? List all the places they can be found in a

cell. (2)

18) The endomembrane system includes a number of organelles in a

eukaryotic cell. Describe what happens to a protein as it travels