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There are two different types of assumptions reality and value. Reality is a belief about what is accurate and factual about the way we view things in the world. Value assumption our standard and morals of right and wrong. People usually learned this at a very young age. Everyone has different religions and standard. Something I would see as wrong the other people might not see it that way. Something as simple as laws some people would see it as a protection to the general safety and follow them others might not agree with them and not follow them.

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The text defines two different forms of assumptions. One of those forms being the reality assumption; where one assumes how the world works or the beliefs one has about the reality of things (Dryer, 2011). These beliefs are established through our experiences and surrounding. For example, only smart people go to college. Next is the value assumption, which are the assumption one makes about the values and standards of the wrong and right way things should be (Dryer, 2011). We develop these values as adolescents, and they continue to grow as we do. Like should eat breakfast before noon or it’s not good for you.

The Nature vs. Nurture video was had many assumptions, insufficient evidence, and answered claims. I think the biggest and most important evidenced that is missing the an actually test like the Professor said that goes into the household and studies for a life time to see the cause and effects parental guidance. The actual evidence to prove which is true about the outcome of a child’s life whether it be the nature or the nurture of an individual. I think the assumptions are valid but not accurate because everyone is different, and some criminals are raised in the best homes they choose to do wrong on their own and vice versa. A child can experience and learn things from many places, and I think with those things plus what they take from home makes them who they are. Both are needed but there are still issues on which is more influential to your life.


Callable bonds are bonds that can be redeemed by the issuer prior to its maturity (Chen, 2019). In order to determine how many shares that can be converted, a conversion ratio is used. Having conversion options makes business more appealing for the person investing. Callable and convertible bonds are similar in that both of them carry special provisions that make it possible for these bonds to be terminated before their official expiration date (Ozyasar, 2018). Another thing to consider with conversion, the bonds can be called by the user at a certain price that protects the issuer from any crazy spikes in share price. As a bondholder, I would not convert these bonds when the price of the stock reached $22 until I know that the earnings will be more than that of the bonds. For example, LC bond with a $1000 par value that is convertible into common stock. The bond has a conversion ratio of 50 shares ($1000/50=$20).


Companies like the Lion Corp. (LC) would issue a 30 year callable bond is for companies that are secure financially and are able to buy back their bonds. Callable bonds are good for investors, because they can earn a guaranteed income. As a bondholder I would not convert my bonds when the prices of stock reaches $22, because I would make sure that a return can be made.